The 8 Parts of Speech in English Grammar

The 8 Parts of Speech in English Grammar

The parts of speech are a fundamental aspect of English grammar. All the words we use in our writing and speech can be classified into these eight categories. To fully understand how these categories work within sentences and the roles they play in communication, it is essential to study the 8 parts of speech in depth.

The 8 Parts of Speech in English Grammar

You will explore the definition and examples of the 8 parts of speech in Eglish language. Moreover, we’ll present parts of speech chart and worksheets for better understanding. In addition, there will differences between (a) open and closed class (b) hither and thither categories of parts of speech. You can also find FAQs and exercise on parts of speech for your practice.

Definition of Parts of Speech

In the English language, there are eight different categories of words called parts of speech: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. Each part of speech has a specific function in a sentence and can help determine the meaning of a word.

Some words can even belong to more than one part of speech depending on how they are used. It is important to understand these categories when looking up the definition of a word in a dictionary.

Let’s now discuss the eight parts of speech in detail.

The 8 Parts of Speech With Definitions & Examples

Here are the 8 parts of speech in English grammar:

1. Noun

Nouns are words that refer to people, places, things, or ideas. They can be proper nouns, which refer to specific, named individuals or locations (such as “London” or “John”), or common nouns, which refer to general categories of people, places, or things (such as “city” or “book”). Nouns can also be singular or plural, depending on the number of people or things they refer to.

2. Pronoun

Pronouns are words that stand in for nouns and noun phrases. They can be used to avoid repeating the same noun multiple times in a sentence, or to add variety to the sentence structure. Examples of pronouns include “I,” “you,” “he,” “she,” “it,” “we,” “they,” “who,” and “which.”

3. Adjectives

Adjectives are words that describe or modify nouns or pronouns. They can be used to provide more information about the size, shape, color, age, or other qualities of a noun. Adjectives can come before the noun they modify (such as “a big dog”), after the verb “to be” (such as “the dog is big”), or after certain linking verbs (such as “the dog seems big”).

4. Verb

Verbs are words that express an action or a state of being. They can be transitive verbs, which require an object to complete their meaning (such as “give” or “eat”), or intransitive verbs, which do not require an object (such as “sleep” or “arrive”). Verbs can also be regular or irregular, depending on how their past tense is formed. Regular verbs form the past tense by adding -ed to the base form (such as “talk” becoming “talked”), while irregular verbs have their own unique past tense form (such as “go” becoming “went”).

5. Adverb

Adverbs are words that describe or modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They can be used to provide more information about the manner, time, place, or other circumstances in which an action is performed. Adverbs can be formed by adding -ly to an adjective (such as “quick” becoming “quickly”), or they can be a separate word entirely (such as “suddenly” or “always”).

6. Preposition

Prepositions are words that show the relationship between a noun or pronoun and another word in the sentence. They can indicate location (“in the room”), time (“at noon”), or some other type of relationship (“of the group”). Common prepositions include “in,” “on,” “at,” “under,” “over,” “before,” “after,” and “during.”.

7. Conjunction

Conjunctions are words that connect clauses or sentences. They can be used to show the relationship between two ideas or to create a logical flow in the sentence. Examples of conjunctions include “and,” “but,” “or,” “so,” and “because.”

8. Interjection

Interjections are words that express strong emotions or surprise. They are usually followed by an exclamation mark and are used to add emphasis or to interrupt the flow of the sentence. Examples of interjections include “oh,” “wow,” “ouch,” and “yuck.”

It is important to understand the different parts of speech and how they function in order to communicate effectively in the English language. By using the appropriate part of speech in the right context, we can convey our thoughts.

Parts of Speech Chart

The below parts of speech chart will help you to understand some of their characteristics.

Part of SpeechDefinitionExamples
NounA word that represents a person, place, thing, or idea.cat, city, happiness
PronounA word that stands in place of a noun.she, it, they
VerbA word that describes an action or state of being.run, be, think
AdjectiveA word that describes a noun.red, happy, tall
AdverbA word that describes a verb, adjective, or other adverb.quickly, very, extremely
PrepositionA word that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence.in, on, under
ConjunctionA word that connects words, phrases, or clauses.and, but, or
InterjectionA word that expresses strong emotion and is usually set off from the rest of the sentence with punctuation.oh, wow, ouch
DeterminerA word that introduces a noun and indicates the reference of the noun in the context.the, a, an
ModalA word that is used with a verb to express possibility, necessity, or permission.can, should, will
GerundA verb form that functions as a noun and ends in “-ing.” It is derived from a verb but functions as a noun in a sentence.running, eating

Note that this table is just a summary and there are many nuances and exceptions to the definitions and examples provided.

Worksheet for the 8 Parts of speech

Worksheet for the 8 Parts of speech
You can practice this parts of speech worksheet to know what have you learnt. Identify each word with its perspective parts of speech category.

  1. The cat sat on the mat.
  2. She ate the sandwich quickly.
  3. He gave her a bouquet of flowers.
  4. The big, red balloon floated away.
  5. I can’t believe it’s snowing in May!

Answers:

  1. The (article) cat (noun) sat (verb) on (preposition) the (article) mat (noun).
  2. She (pronoun) ate (verb) the (article) sandwich (noun) quickly (adverb).
  3. He (pronoun) gave (verb) her (pronoun) a (article) bouquet (noun) of (preposition) flowers (noun).
  4. The (article) big (adjective), red (adjective) balloon (noun) floated (verb) away (adverb).
  5. I (pronoun) can’t (contraction of “cannot”) believe (verb) it’s (contraction of “it is”) snowing (verb) in (preposition) May (proper noun)!

Open Class and Closed Class Parts of Speech

In linguistics, open class parts of speech are those that readily accept new members, while closed class parts of speech are those that have a fixed, limited number of members.

Open class parts of speech include nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. These parts of speech can have new words added to them easily and frequently, and they tend to be more flexible in their usage. For example, it is common for new nouns to be coined and added to the language all the time, such as “selfie” or “vlog.” Similarly, new verbs can be created by adding suffixes or combining existing words, such as “text” + “ing” to form “texting.”

Closed class parts of speech, on the other hand, are those that have a fixed, limited number of members and do not readily accept new words. These include pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. These parts of speech tend to be more stable and do not change as frequently as open class parts of speech.

It is important to note that the distinction between open and closed class parts of speech is not fixed and can vary depending on the language and the way it is used. For example, some languages may have more open class parts of speech than others, and the classification of certain words as open or closed class can also vary depending on the context in which they are used.

Hither and Thither Parts of Speech

“Hither” and “thither” are adverbs that are used to indicate direction. “Hither” means “to this place,” while “thither” means “to that place.”

For example:

  • “She looked hither and thither, trying to find her lost keys.” (In this sentence, “hither” refers to the place where the speaker is currently located, while “thither” refers to another place nearby.)
  • “The wind blew the leaves hither and thither as we walked through the park.” (In this sentence, “hither” and “thither” indicate the movement of the leaves in different directions.)

It is worth noting that “hither” and “thither” are somewhat formal or archaic terms and are not commonly used in everyday speech. They are more likely to be found in literature or formal written language.

Exercise on Parts of Speech for Practice

  1. Identify the nouns and verbs in the following sentence: “The cat chased the mouse through the house.”
  2. Identify the adjectives and adverbs in the following sentence: “She sings beautifully and confidently on stage.”
  3. Identify the pronouns and prepositions in the following sentence: “I gave the book to her and she read it in her room.”
  4. Identify the conjunctions and interjections in the following sentence: “But, oh no! I forgot my keys at home.”
  5. Identify the subject and predicate in the following sentence: “The dog barked at the mailman.”
  6. Identify the direct object and indirect object in the following sentence: “She gave the book to me.”
  7. Identify the participles and gerunds in the following sentence: “Running late, I forgot my phone at home.”
  8. Identify the infinitive and its function in the following sentence: “I want to go to the store.”
  9. Identify the verb tense and any verb tense changes in the following sentence: “I had been walking for hours when I finally saw a gas station in the distance.”
  10. Identify the mood of the verb and any changes in mood in the following sentence: “If I were you, I would study for the test.”
  11. Identify the modal verb and its function in the following sentence: “She might not be able to come to the party.”
  12. Identify the subject-verb agreement in the following sentence: “The cat and the dog are playing in the yard.”

Conclusion

Parts of speech are basic and inevitable part of Engish grammar. There are several factors about this topic that you we have discussed in this article. Such as various parts of parts and speech with their definitions and examples, chart, worksheet, exercise, difference between open and closed class parts of speech, difference between hither and thither parts of speech.

Frequently Asked Questions

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The parts of speech are noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, conjunction, preposition, and interjection.

Here is the difference between open and closed parts of speech:

  • Open class: This term is used to describe parts of speech that can have new members added to them easily. In English, the open class parts of speech are nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. These parts of speech can have new words added to them relatively easily and frequently, as the English language is constantly evolving.
  • Closed class: This term is used to describe parts of speech that do not have new members added to them easily. In English, the closed class parts of speech are pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. These parts of speech are less prone to change and new words are not added to them as frequently as open class parts of speech.

"Hither" and "thither" are adverbs that mean "to or toward this place" and "to or toward that place," respectively. They are used to indicate movement or direction, and are often used in conjunction with verbs of motion. For example:

"I will come hither to see you." (meaning "I will come to this place to see you.")

"She looked thither and saw the tree." (meaning "She looked to that place and saw the tree.")

While "hither" and "thither" are both adverbs, they do not have any special relationship or difference in terms of parts of speech. They are simply two different adverbs that have slightly different meanings.

Adjectives and adverbs are both types of modifiers, which are words that provide additional information about other words in a sentence. However, they have different functions:

  • Adjectives: Adjectives are used to describe or modify nouns or pronouns. They typically appear before the noun or pronoun that they modify. For example:

"The happy dog wagged its tail." (In this sentence, "happy" is an adjective that modifies the noun "dog.")

  • Adverbs: Adverbs are used to describe or modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They typically appear after the word that they modify. For example:

"She sings beautifully." (In this sentence, "beautifully" is an adverb that modifies the verb "sings.")

Yes, determiners are a type of part of speech. In English grammar, determiners are words that are used to specify the reference of a noun or noun phrase. They are used to indicate whether the noun they modify is definite or indefinite, and they can also indicate the quantity of the noun.

Some examples of determiners in English include:

Articles: "a," "an," and "the"
Demonstratives: "this," "that," "these," and "those"
Possessives: "my," "your," "his," "her," "its," "our," and "their"
Quantifiers: "some," "any," "many," "few," "all," "both," "each," "every," "either," "neither," and "no"
Determiners typically appear before the noun that they modify, and they help to specify the reference of the noun in a sentence.

For example:

"I saw a cat in the yard." (In this sentence, "a" is a determiner that indicates that the noun "cat" is indefinite.)

"Give me the book on the table." (In this sentence, "the" is a determiner that indicates that the noun "book" is definite.)

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